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These are the references we have used for crafting the material in the VL2 Family Information Package. Links to the full articles are made available whenever possible. This page will be updated whenever VL2 publications and presentations are released.



Allen, T. E., Clark, M. D., del Giudice, A., Koo, D., Lieberman, A., Mayberry, R., & Miller, P. (2009). Phonology and reading: A response to Wang, Trezek, Luckner, and Paul. American Annals of the Deaf, 154(4), 338–345. doi:10.1353/aad.0.0109

Allen, T., & Morere, D. A. (2012). Underlying neurocognitive and achievement factors and their relationship to student background characteristics. In D. A. Morere & T. Allen (Eds.), Assessing literacy in deaf individuals: Neurocognitive measurement and predictors (pp. 231-262).  New York, NY: Springer.

Bat-Chava, Y. (1993). Antecedents of self-esteem in deaf people: A meta-analytic review. Rehabilitation Psychology, 38(4), 221-234.

Bélanger, N. N., Mayberry, R. I., & Rayner, K. (2013). Orthographic and phonological preview benefits: Parafoveal processing in skilled and less-skilled deaf readers. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2013.780085

Bélanger, N. N., Slattery, T. J., Mayberry, R. I., & Rayner, K. (2012). Skilled deaf readers have an enhanced perceptual span in reading. Psychological Science, 23(7), 817-823. doi: 10.1177/0956797611435130

Berens, M. S., Kovelman, I., & Petitto, L.-A. (2013). Should bilingual children learn reading in two languages at the same time or in sequence? Evidence of a bilingual reading advantage in children in bilingual schools from monolingual English-only homes. Bilingual Research Journal. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/15235882.2013.779618

Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., Green, D. W., & Gollan, T. H. (2009). Bilingual minds. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10, 89-129. doi:10.1177/1529100610387084

Bolger, D. J., Schneider, W., Perfetti, C. A. (2005). Cross-cultural effect on the brain revisited: Universal structures plus writing system variation. Human Brain Mapping, 25(1), 92-104.

Bosworth, R. G., Petrich, J. A. F., & Dobkins, K. R. (2013). Effects of attention and laterality on motion and orientation discrimination in deaf signers. Brain and Cognition, 82(1), 117-126. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2013.01.006

Cawthon, S., Winton, S., Garberoglio, C. L., & Gobble, M. (2011). The effects of American Sign Language as an assessment accommodation for students who are Deaf. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16, 198-211.

Chamberlain, C. & Mayberry, R. I. (2008). ASL syntactic and narrative comprehension in skilled and less skilled adult readers: Bilingual-Bimodal evidence for the linguistic basis of reading. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29, 368-388.

Clark, M. D., Gilbert, G., & Anderson, M. (2011). Morphological knowledge and decoding skills of deaf readers. Psychology, 2, 109-116.

Corina, D. P., Lawyer, L. A., & Cates, D. (2013). Cross-linguistic differences in the neural representation of human language: evidence from users of signed languages. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 587.

Corina, D., & Singleton, J. (2009).  Developmental social cognitive neuroscience: Insights from deafness.  Child Dev, 80(4), 952-67. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01310.x.

Crume, P. K. (2013). Teachers’ perceptions of promoting sign language phonological awareness in an ASL/English bilingual program. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1093/deafed/ent023

Dye, M. W. G., Hauser, P. C., & Bavelier, D. (2009) Is visual selective attention in deaf individuals enhanced or deficient? The case of the useful field of view. PLoS ONE 4(5), 1-7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005640

Emmorey, K., & Petrich, J. A. (2012). Processing orthographic structure: Associations between print and fingerspelling. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ, 17(2), 194-204. doi: 10.1093/deafed/enr051

Emmorey, K., Weisberg, J., McCullough, S., & Petrich, J. A. F. (2013). Mapping the reading circuitry for skilled deaf readers: An fMRI study of semantic and phonological processing. Brain and Language 126(2), 169-180. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2013.05.001

Freel, B. L., Clark, M. D., Anderson, M. L., Gilbert, G. L., Musyoka, M. M., & Hauser, P. C. (2011). Deaf individuals’ bilingual abilities: American Sign Language proficiency, reading skills, and family characteristics. Psychology, 2(1), 18-23. doi: 10.4236/psych.2011.21003

Goldin-Meadow, S., Shield, A., Lenzen, D., Herzig, M., & Padden, C. (2012). The gestures ASL signers use tell us when they are ready to learn math. Cognition, 123, 448-453. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2012.02.006

Guldenoglu, B., Kargin, T., & Miller, P. (2012) Comparing the word processing and reading comprehension of skilled and less skilled readers. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12(4), 2822-2828.

Haptonstall-Nykaza, T. S., & Schick, B. (2007). The transition from fingerspelling to English print: Facilitating English decoding. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ, 12(2), 172-183.

Hermans, D., Knoors, H., Ormel, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2008). The relationship between the reading and signing skills of deaf children in bilingual education programs. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ, 13(4), 518-530.

Hirsh-Pasek, K. (1987) The metalinguistics of fingerspelling: An alternative way to increase written vocabulary in congenitally deaf readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 22(4), 455-475.

Holowka, S., Brosseau-Lapré, F., & Petitto, L. -A. (2002). Semantic and conceptual knowledge underlying bilingual babies’ first signs and words. Language Learning, 52(2), 205-262.

Kargin, T., Guldenoglu, B., Miller, P., Hauser, P. C., Rathman, C., Kubus, O., & Spurgeon, E. (2012). Differences in word processing skills of deaf and hearing individuals reading in different orthographies. J Dev Phys Disabil, 24(1), 65-83. doi: 10.1007/s10882-011-9255-z

Kovelman, I., Baker, S.A., & Petitto, L.A. (2008). Age of first bilingual language exposure as a new window into bilingual reading development. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(2), 203-223. doi: 10.1017/S1366728908003386

Kovelman, I., Baker, S.A., & Petitto, L. A. (2008). Bilingual and Monolingual brains compared: An fMRI investigation of syntactic processing and a possible “neural signature” of bilingualism. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(1), 153-169.

Kovelman, I., Shalinsky, M. S., Berens, M. S., & Petitto L. A. (2008). Shining new light on the brain’s “Bilingual Signature:” A functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy investigation of semantic processing. NeuroImage, 39(3), 1457-1471.

Kuntze, M. (1998). Literacy and deaf children: The language question. Topics in Language Disorders 18(4): 1–15.

Lieberman, A. M., Hatrak, M., & Mayberry, R. I. (2013).  Learning to look for language: Development of joint attention in young deaf children.  Language Learning and Development. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/15475441.2012.760381.

Lieberman, A. M., Hatrak, M., & Mayberry, R. I. (2011). The development of eye gaze control for linguistic input in deaf children. In N. Danis, K. Mesh, & H. Sung (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th Boston University Conference on Language Development, (pp. 391-403). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Lillo-Martin, D. (1999) Modality effects and modularity in language acquisition: The acquisition of American Sign Language. In W. C. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of child language acquisition (pp. 531-567). San Diego, CA: Academic Press

Lillo-Martin, D. (2002). Where are all the modality effects? In R. P. Meier, K. Cormier, & D. Quinto-Pozos (Eds.), Modality and Structure in Signed Language and Spoken Language (pp. 241-262). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Marschark, M. & Hauser, P.C. (2011). How deaf children learn: What parents and teachers need to know. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Mather, S. S., & Clark, M. D. (2012). An issue of learning: The effect of visual split attention in classrooms for deaf and hard of hearing students. Odyssey, 13, 20-25.

Mayberry, R. I., del Giudice, A. A., & Lieberman, A. M. (2011). Reading achievement in relation to phonological coding and awareness in deaf readers: A meta-analysis. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16(2), 164-188. doi: 10.1093/deafed/enq049

Mayberry, R. I., & Lock, E. (2003). Age constraints on first versus second language acquisition: Evidence for linguistic plasticity and epigenesis. Brain and Language, 87, 369–383. doi: 10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00137-8

Mayberry, R. I., Lock, E., & Kazmi, H. (2002). Linguistic ability and early language exposure. Nature, 417, 38.

Miller, P. & Clark, M. D. (2011). Phonological Awareness is not necessary to become a skilled deaf reader (Review). Journal of Development and Physical Disabilities, 23, 459–476.

Miller, P., Kargin, T., & Guldenoglu, B. (2012). Differences in the reading of shallow and ‎deep orthography: Developmental evidence from Hebrew and Turkish readers. ‎Journal of Research in Reading. Advance online publication. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2012.01540.x‎.

Miller, P., Kargin, T., & Guldenoglu, B. (2013). The reading comprehension failure of Turkish prelingually deaf readers: Evidence from semantic and syntactic processing. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 25(2), 221-239.

Miller, P., Kargin, T., Guldenoglu, B., Rathmann, C., Kubus, O., Hauser, P. C., & Spurgeon, E. (2012). Factors distinguishing skilled and less skilled readers: Evidence from four orthographies. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 17, 439-462.

Morford, J. P., Wilkinson, E., Villwock, A., Piñar, P., & Kroll, J. F. (2011). When deaf signers read English: Do written words activate their sign translations? Cognition, 118, 286-292. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2010.11.006

Newport, E., & Meier, R. (1985). The acquisition of American Sign Language, In D. Slobin (Ed.), The cross-linguistic study of language acquisition (pp. 881-938). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Padden, C., & Ramsey, C. (1998). Reading ability in signing deaf children. Topics in Language Disorders, 18, 30-46.

Padden, C., & Ramsey, C. (2000). American Sign Language and reading ability in deaf children. In C. Chamberlain, J. Morford, & R. Mayberry (Eds.), Language Acquisition by Eye (pp. 165-189). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Petitto, L. -A. (2000). On the biological foundations of human language. In H. Lane & K. Emmorey (Eds.), The signs of language revisited: An anthology in honor of Ursula Bellugi and Edward Klima (pp. 447-471). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Petitto, L. A. (2009). New discoveries from the bilingual brain and mind across the lifespan: Implications for education. International Journal of Mind, Brain and Education, 3(4), 185-197. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-228X.2009.01069.x

Petitto, L. -A., Berens, M. S., Kovelman, I., Dubins, M. H., Jasinska, K. and Shalinksy, M. (2012). The "Perceptual Wedge Hypothesis" as the basis for bilingual babies phonetic processing advantage: New insights from fNIRS brain imaging. Brain and Language, 121(2), 142-155. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2011.05.003

Petitto, L. -A., Katerelos, M., Levy, B. G., Gauna, K., Tétreault, K., & Ferraro, V. (2001). Bilingual signed and spoken language acquisition from birth: Implications for the mechanisms underlying early bilingual language acquisition. Journal of Child Language, 28(2), 453-496.

Petitto, L. -A., & Kovelman, I. (2003). The Bilingual Paradox: How signing-speaking bilingual children help us to resolve bilingual issues and teach us about the brain’s mechanisms underlying all language acquisition. Learning Languages, 8(3), 5-18.

Piñar, P., Dussias, P. E., & Morford, J. P. (2011). Deaf readers as bilinguals: An examination of deaf readers’ print comprehension in light of current advances in bilingualism and second language processing. Language and Linguistics Compass, 5 (10), 691-704.

Pucci, C., Harmon, K., & Mounty, J. (2013). Emic perspectives on reading development in American Sign Language/English bilingual deaf children. Deaf Studies Digital Journal, 3.

Quinto-Pozos, D., & Reynolds, W. (2012). ASL discourse strategies: Chaining and connecting-explaining across audiences. Sign Language Studies, 12(2). 41-65.

Singleton, J. L. & Crume, P. K. (2010, July). Socializing visual engagement in early childhood deaf education. Poster session presented at the 21st International Congress on the Education of the Deaf, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Strong, M., & Prinz, P. M. (1997). A study of the relationship between ASL and English literacy. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ, 2(1), 37–46.

Singleton, J. L., Morgan, D., DiGello, E., Wiles, J., & Rivers, R. (2004). Vocabulary use by low, moderate, and high ASL-proficient writers compared to hearing ESL and monolingual speakers. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ, 9(1), 86-103.

Singleton, J. L. & Crume, P. K. (2010, July). Socializing visual engagement in early childhood deaf education. Poster session presented at the 21st International Congress on the Education of the Deaf, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Schleper, D. R. (1997). Reading to deaf children: Learning from deaf adults. Washington, DC: Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center at Gallaudet University.

Waters, D., Campbell, R., Capek, C. M., Woll, B., David, A. S., McGuire, P. K., Brammer, M. J, & MacSweeney, M. (2007). Fingerspelling, signed language, text and picture processing in deaf native signers: The role of the mid-fusiform gyrus. NeuroImage, 35(3), 1287-1302.

Zodda, J. J., Nelson Schmitt, S. S., Crisologo, A. E., Plotkin, R. M., Yates, M. T., Witkin, G. A., & Hall, W. C. (2012). Signing while driving: An investigation of divided attention resources among deaf drivers. JADARA, 45, 314-329.